Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-2013

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He served in state government as the executive secretary to Governor Lester Maddox and in the Georgia Democratic Party, was the Georgia state chairman for Walter Mondale's presidential campaign. Miller's first experience in the executive branch of government was as Chief of Staff for Georgia governor Lester Maddox, he was elected Lieutenant Governor of Georgia in , serving four terms from to , through the terms of Governors George Busbee and Joe Frank Harris , making him the longest-serving lieutenant governor in Georgia history.

Miller pledged to seek only a single term as governor, he ran for and won re-election in James Carville was Miller's campaign manager. In two oft-recalled lines, Miller said that President George H. Bush "just doesn't get it," and he remarked of a statement by Vice President Dan Quayle : I know what Dan Quayle means when he says it's best for children to have two parents. You bet it is! And it would be nice, too. We can't all be born handsome and lucky, and that's. My family would still be isolated and destitute if we had not had F.

I made it because Franklin Delano Roosevelt energized this nation. I made it. I made it because John Kennedy's rising tide lifted our tiny boat. I made it because Lyndon Johnson showed America that people who were born poor didn't have to die poor, and I made it because a man with whom I served in the Georgia Senate , a man named Jimmy Carter , brought honesty and decency and integrity to public service. As governor, Miller was best known for getting a law passed in Georgia known as "two strikes and you're out", in stark contrast to three strikes law , known as the Seven-deadly-sins law; the law was passed in April, , although it has been advocated by Miller for many years previously.

It was approved by voters on November 8, and was signed into law by Governor Zell Miller on December 15, and went into effect on January 1, ; the law is codified and found under Title 17, Chapter 10, Section 7 of the Official Code of Georgia Annotated. The law states that those convicted of second-degree murder, armed robbery, kidnapping must serve a minimum term of. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party , the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around by supporters of Andrew Jackson , making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism , while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South.

In , Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party , beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat.

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Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings. The New Deal Coalition of — attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.

After Franklin D.

Roosevelt's New Deal of the s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans , Hispanic Americans , Asian Americans , Arab Americans and African Americans , tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.

It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy.

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Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States ; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from to The most recent was President Barack Obama , the 44th president and held office from to Following the midterm elections , the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives , " trifectas " in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston , Los Angeles , New York City , San Francisco , Portland and Washington, D. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March , four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.

Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the s with the election of Andrew Jackson.

Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in , the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.

The party favored republicanism ; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of After the War of , the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The era of one-party rule in the United States , known as the Era of Good Feelings , lasted from until the early s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren , became the modern Democratic Party.

As Norton explains the transformation in Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery. In , angry with the Kansas—Nebraska Act , anti-slavery Dem.

Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in , all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at As of the Census, the largest delegation is that of California , with fifty-three representatives.

Seven states have only one representative: Alaska , Montana , North Dakota , South Dakota and Wyoming ; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol ; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House , elected by the members thereof.

The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation , the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action.

After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in , which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation".

All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment.

The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population.

The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan , which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states. The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in , but its implementation was set for March 4, The House began work on April , when it achieved a quorum for the first time.

During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed.

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Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso , which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican—American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War , which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery.

All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war. The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about ; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times.

The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed.


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While the Minority Leader. It was founded at the University of Alabama on March 9, Of all existing national social fraternities today, Sigma Alpha Epsilon is the only one founded in the Antebellum South , its national headquarters, the Levere Memorial Temple, was established on the campus of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois , in The fraternity's mission statement is "To promote the highest standards of friendship and service for our members based upon the ideals set forth by our Founders and as enunciated in our creed.

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New members receive a copy of The Phoenix , the manual of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, for educational development. In March , the fraternity announced that it was eliminating the tradition of pledging following several alcohol - and drug-related incidents.

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In , Sigma Alpha Epsilon has had nine deaths linked to drinking and hazing since , more than any other Greek organization in the United States according to data compiled by Bloomberg in During the s, at least 18 Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapters closed, or banned. Their leader was DeVotie, who wrote the ritual, created the grip, chose the name. Rudulph designed the fraternity badge. Of all existing national social fraternities today, Sigma Alpha Epsilon is the only national fraternity founded in the Antebellum South.

Founded in a time of intense sectional feeling, Sigma Alpha Epsilon confined its growth to the southern states.

By the end of , the fraternity numbered seven chapters, its first national convention met in the summer of at Murfreesboro , with four of its eight chapters in attendance. By the time of the outbreak of the American Civil War in , fifteen chapters had been established.